"Yongle Dadian", an encyclopedia of the Chinese Ming dynasty, had 22,937
chapters in 10,000 volumes. Over 2,000 Chinese scholars worked on the book for
5 years before it was finished. The world's largest nonfiction work and its earliest
encyclopedia is going to be given a new lease of life when it gets reprinted for
the first time in 600 years. The
Yongle encyclopedia (Yongle Dadian) -- made up of 22,877 volumes in 11,095 books
-- is being republished by the Beijing Library Press, China's state-run Xinhua
news agency said on Thursday. The move came in April, 2002. as experts from China
and around the world gathered in Beijing to attend a global meet to mark the 600th
anniversary of the compilation. There they talked about ways of preserving and
publishing the "cultural treasure," which is 12 times the size of the
encyclopedia put together by the French author Diderot in the 18th century, and
which experts predict hit the scales at 40 tons.
More than 3,000 scholars and officials spent four years from 1403
to compile the volumes under the order of Emperor Chengzu of the Ming Dynasty
(1368-1644). Up to 8,000
books were gathered from all parts of China to boost the imperial library's collection,
making the encyclopedia the only source for ancient books now long lost, Ren Jiyu,
director of the National Library of China, told the state-run China Daily newspaper.
book was prefaced by the emperor himself, who likened its compilation to gold
mining: "It is (as difficult) as sieving the sand for gold, or scouting the
sea for diamonds." The
book covered 3.7 hundred million traditional Chinese characters, many which are
no longer used, and collected enormous materials from the Pre-Qin Period (before
22l B.C.) to the Ming Dynasty.
a key milestone in Chinese cultural history, much of the Yongle Dadian was destroyed
when allied forces, including troops from Britain, the United States, Russia and
Japan, invaded Beijing in 1900. Volumes were set alight while others were plundered
or carried overseas, according to China media reports. Experts
predict that only about 400 books remain in the world, less than 4 percent of
the original work.
The scholars at the Beijing symposium agreed that it was key to reprint
all the remaining parts of the encyclopedia, which were so studiously put together.
The book is considered a treasure because it preserves many ancient works that
are now destroyed. Because it is so large, the Yongle Dadian was never printed
and only manuscripts remained.
Beijing Library Press has begun making full-size replicas of all the remaining
volumes of the Yongle Dadian collected at the National Library of China. "It
is the first time in the world to have photocopies of the encyclopedia in its
original size, color and style," Guo Youling, director with Beijing Library
Press, told Xinhua. "We
are making every effort to make it resemble the originals so as to give readers
an idea of the Yongle Dadian."
press plans to publish photocopies of the 163 books housed in the Chinese mainland
within one year and a half. Later publications will extend to the 200 books scattered
overseas. "Even a small part of it will be important for scholarship and
any effort to publish it is remarkable," Soren Edgren, professor with the
Princeton University, told the state-owned China Daily newspaper.
modern times, the Spanish encyclopedia "La Enciclopedia" "Univeral
Ilustada Europeo-Americana" has 105,000 pages. The longest modern work of
fiction is the 40-volume novel "To-kugawa leyasu" by Sohachi Yamaoka.
speaking of long books, we typically refer to printed works or works created on
paper. There are many other types of ancient books such as the 15,000 clay tablets
left by the ancient Hittites.
writing and reading was handled in many different ways. Some writing was written
and read left to right, some right to left, some top to bottom, and some back
and forth, alternating from line to line. In the sixth century B.C. most Mediterranean
cultures agreed to use left-to-right reading and writing. However, the Hebrews
kept their right-to-left writing.
library of Alexandria was designed to hold all the books that existed in the world
at the time (295 BC) and contained 700,000 volumes. It was damaged by fire during
a siege by Julius Caesar in A.D. 47. Civil wars later inflicted more damage and
by AD 400 nothing remained of the once great library.
experts believe that the first books were created by the Sumerians over 5,000
years ago. The Sumerians had a cuneiform alphabet with letters made up from a
triangular symbol. The symbol could be made with the point facing up, down, left,
or right. Combinations of the various symbol positions formed specific letters.
A wedge-shaped tool was pressed into clay tablets to form the letters. The tablets
were then dried or fired so they would last. Some of these "books" even
had clay envelopes.
the introduction of the printing press, books were made of vellum (calf or lambskin)
because it was extremely durable. In William Randolph Hearst's castle at San Simeon,
California, there are lampshades made from fifteenth-century vellum prayer books.
Even today the vellum is in excellent condition.
From ... "Do Fish Drink Water?" by Bill McLain